After the decline of Mughal empire and the end of classical and medieval art of India, contemporary art began with the British rule in India. Raja Ravi Varma, Abanindranath Tagore, Amrita Shergil, Rabindra Nath Tagore, and Jamini Roy, were the pioneers of contemporary Indian Art. These young artists were more exposed to the western art movements. German Expressionism, Cubism, Fauvism, Dadaism and Surrealism left great influence on these Indian painters, but at the same time, their struggle to retain Indian identity continued. A combination of western technique and Indian spiritualism became the essence of Indian Modern Art.
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